Silicon Oxide Terminology

Wafer Terminology

  • P-Type Wafer: Have Boron as main Dopant. Can be P+ or P- depending on dopant level. P-type wafers can have 100 or 111 orientation. 111 orientation wafers are normally used in Bi-polar devices).
  • N-Type Wafer: Have Phosphorous, Antimony or Arsenic as main dopants. Can be N+ or N- depending on dopant level. The most common N-type wafer is doped with either Antimony or Phosphorous. The later being used most commonly for advanced CMOS device fabrication.
  • Dopant: An element that contributes an electron to a coduction process, thus altering the conductivity. Dopants for silicon wafers are found in group III and V of the Period Table of Elements.
  • Total Thickness Variation (TTV): The absolute difference between the thickest and thinnest points.
  • Bow: Measure how concave or convex the deformation of the median surface of the wafer at the center point, independent of any thickness variations.
  • Warp: The difference between the maximum and minimum values of the median surface from an established reference plane.
  • Global Total Indicated Reading (GTIR): The maximum peak-to-valley deviation of a wafer surface as measured from a specified reference plane.
  • Site Total Indicated Reading (STIR): Site by site measurement of the flatness of a wafer.
  • Resistivity: Measurement of difficulty that charged carriers have in moving through the wafer.
  • Primary Flat: The longest flat on the wafer. Usually to orient the wafer on the process equipment.
  • Secondary Flat: The shorter flat on the wafer. Used to identify the type and orientation of the wafer.
  • Particles: Unwanted impurities on the surface of the wafer. Common term for particles is Light Point Defect (LPD's). Measured by the total number of particles across the entire surface of the wafer greater than a certain size.

Silicon Oxide Terminology

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